# 【2.1.1】散点图(matplotlib-scatter)

Scatteplot是用于研究两个变量之间关系的经典和基本图。 如果数据中有多个组，则可能需要以不同颜色可视化每个组。 在matplotlib中，您可以使用plt.scatterplot（）方便地执行此操作。

### 例一

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

n = 1024    # data size
X = np.random.normal(0, 1, n) # 每一个点的X值
Y = np.random.normal(0, 1, n) # 每一个点的Y值
T = np.arctan2(Y,X) # for color value
plt.scatter(X, Y, s=75, c=T, alpha=.5)

plt.xlim(-1.5, 1.5)
plt.xticks(())  # ignore xticks
plt.ylim(-1.5, 1.5)
plt.yticks(())  # ignore yticks

plt.show()


### 例二

# !pip install brewer2mpl
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib as mpl
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
import warnings; warnings.filterwarnings(action='once')

large = 22; med = 16; small = 12
params = {'axes.titlesize': large,
'legend.fontsize': med,
'figure.figsize': (16, 10),
'axes.labelsize': med,
'axes.titlesize': med,
'xtick.labelsize': med,
'ytick.labelsize': med,
'figure.titlesize': large}
plt.rcParams.update(params)
plt.style.use('seaborn-whitegrid')
sns.set_style("white")
%matplotlib inline

# Version
print(mpl.__version__)  #> 3.0.0
print(sns.__version__)  #> 0.9.0


# Import dataset

# Prepare Data
# Create as many colors as there are unique midwest['category']
categories = np.unique(midwest['category'])
colors = [plt.cm.tab10(i/float(len(categories)-1)) for i in range(len(categories))]

# Draw Plot for Each Category
plt.figure(figsize=(16, 10), dpi= 80, facecolor='w', edgecolor='k')

for i, category in enumerate(categories):
plt.scatter('area', 'poptotal',
data=midwest.loc[midwest.category==category, :],
s=20, c=colors[i], label=str(category))

# Decorations
plt.gca().set(xlim=(0.0, 0.1), ylim=(0, 90000),
xlabel='Area', ylabel='Population')

plt.xticks(fontsize=12); plt.yticks(fontsize=12)
plt.title("Scatterplot of Midwest Area vs Population", fontsize=22)
plt.legend(fontsize=12)
plt.show()