【7】图形相关-4-用tkinter做高级图

1,创建一个可以点的按钮

>>> def hello():
         print('hello there')
>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> btn=Button(tk,text="click me",command=hello)
>>> btn.pack()

2,创建一个画布

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=500,height=500)
>>> canvas.pack()

3,画一条直线

像素为500*500时,右下角为(500,500)

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=500,height=500)
>>> canvas.pack()
>>> canvas.create_line(0,0,500,500)

4,用turtle来做上面的图

>>> import turtle
>>> turtle.setup(width=500,height=500)
>>> t=t=turtle.Pen()
>>> t.up()
>>> t.goto(-250,-50)
>>> t.down()
>>> t.goto(500,-500)

5,画矩形

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
>>> canvas.pack()
>>> canvas.create_rectangle(10,10,50,50)
#(10,10)代表这个方形的左上角,(50,50)代表方形的右下角

画许多矩形

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> import random
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
>>> canvas.pack()   

>>> def random_rectangle(width,height):
         x1=random.randrange(width)
         y1=random.randrange(height)
         x2=x1+random.randrange(width)
         y2=y1+random.randrange(height)
         canvas.create_rectangle(x1,y1,x2,y2)

>>> for x in range(0,100):
         random_rectangle(400,400)

6,设置颜色

from tkinter import *
import random

tk=Tk()
canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)

canvas.pack() 

def random_rectangle(width,height,fill_color):
         x1=random.randrange(width)
         y1=random.randrange(height)
         x2=x1+random.randrange(width)
         y2=y1+random.randrange(height)
         canvas.create_rectangle(x1,y1,x2,y2,fill=fill_color)

>>> random_rectangle(400,400,'green')
>>> random_rectangle(400,400,'red')

颜色也可以这样来表示

>>> random_rectangle(400,400,'#ffd800')

#ffd800表示十六进制

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> colorchooser.askcolor()

选择一个颜色,按确定,就会出现颜色的的编号

((67.26171875, 170.6640625, 188.734375), '#43aabc')

>>> c=colorchooser.askcolor()
>>> random_rectangle(400,400,c[1])

也可以选择一种颜色,保存到一个变量里面

7,画弧形

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
>>> canvas.pack()
>>> canvas.create_arc(10,10,200,100,extent=180,style=ARC)

extent代表弧度

8,画多边形

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
>>> canvas.pack()
>>> canvas.create_polygon(10,10,100,10,100,110,fill="",outline="black")

每两个数字构成一个点的坐标,然后依次画过去

>>> canvas.create_polygon(200,10,240,30,120,100,140,120,fill="",outline="black")

9,显示文字

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
>>> canvas.pack()
>>> canvas.create_text(150,100,text='there once was a man from Toulouse')
>>> canvas.create_text(130,120,text='there once was a man from Toulouse',fill='red')
>>> canvas.create_text(150,150,text='there once was a man from Toulouse',fill='red',font=('Times',25))

注:font后字体以及大小

10,显示图片

>>> from tkinter import *
>>> tk=Tk()
>>> canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
>>> canvas.pack()
>>> my_image=PhotoImage(file='E:\\py\\111.gif')
>>> canvas.create_image(0,0,anchor=NW,image=my_image)

注:tkinter 只能装入gif图片,anchor=NW,NW为左上角northwest,作为图片的起点

11,创建基本的动画

import time
from tkinter import *
tk=Tk()
canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=200)
canvas.pack()
canvas.create_polygon(10,10,10,60,50,35)

for x in range(0,60):
    canvas.move(1,5,0)
    tk.update()
    time.sleep(0.05)

注:canvas.move(1,5,0) 其中1代表代表打印出来的那个多边形,5,0分别代表横纵坐标,tk.update()代表重新作图,

用enter键来控制图形的移动

from tkinter import *
tk=Tk()
canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
canvas.pack()
canvas.create_polygon(10,10,10,60,50,35)
def movetriangle(event):
    canvas.move(1,5,0)
canvas.bind_all('< KeyPress-Return>',movetriangle)

使用上下左右来调动图形

from tkinter import *

tk=Tk()
canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
canvas.pack()
canvas.create_polygon(10,10,10,60,50,35)

def movetriangle(event):
    if event.keysym=='Up':
        canvas.move(1,0,-3)
    elif event.keysym=='Down':
        canvas.move(1,0,3)
    elif event.keysym=='Left':
        canvas.move(1,-3,0)
    else:
        canvas.move(1,3,0)

canvas.bind_all('< KeyPress-Up>',movetriangle)
canvas.bind_all('< KeyPress-Down>',movetriangle)
canvas.bind_all('< KeyPress-Left>',movetriangle)
canvas.bind_all('< KeyPress-Right>',movetriangle)

12,多个ID

只要用了以create开头的函数,例如create_polygon或者create_ractangle等等,它总会返回一个ID,这个识别编号可以在其他画布的函数中使用,同时我们也可以把图形保存在一个变量里面

from tkinter import *
tk=Tk()
canvas=Canvas(tk,width=400,height=400)
canvas.pack()
mytriangle=canvas.create_polygon(10,10,10,60,50,35)
canvas.move(mytriangle,5,0)
canvas.itemconfig(mytriangle,fill='blue')
canvas.itemconfig(mytriangle,outline='red')

参考资料:

《趣学python编程》

个人公众号,比较懒,很少更新,可以在上面提问题,如果回复不及时,可发邮件给我: tiehan@sina.cn

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