【3.7.1】matplotlib-colors(matplotlib可识别代表颜色的字符)

matplotlib识别如下形式的颜色:

  • an RGB or RGBA tuple of float values in 0, 1;
  • a hex RGB or RGBA string (e.g., ‘#0F0F0F’ or ‘#0F0F0F0F’); 每两个十六进制数分别代表R、G、B分量:
  • a string representation of a float value in [0, 1] inclusive for gray level (e.g., ‘0.5’);
  • one of {‘b’, ‘g’, ‘r’, ‘c’, ’m’, ‘y’, ‘k’, ‘w’};
  • a X11/CSS4 color name;
  • a name from the xkcd color survey; prefixed with ‘xkcd:’ (e.g., ‘xkcd:sky blue’);
  • one of {‘tab:blue’, ‘tab:orange’, ‘tab:green’, ‘tab:red’, ‘tab:purple’, ‘tab:brown’, ‘tab:pink’, ‘tab:gray’, ‘tab:olive’, ‘tab:cyan’} which are the Tableau Colors from the ‘T10’ categorical palette (which is the default color cycle);
  • a “CN” color spec, i.e. ‘C’ followed by a single digit, which is an index into the default property cycle (matplotlib.rcParams[‘axes.prop_cycle’]); the indexing occurs at artist creation time and defaults to black if the cycle does not include color.

二、案例

2.1 20种颜色

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

NUM_COLORS = 20
LINE_STYLES = ['solid', 'dashed', 'dashdot', 'dotted']
NUM_STYLES = len(LINE_STYLES)

cm = plt.get_cmap('gist_rainbow')
fig = plt.figure()
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
for i in range(NUM_COLORS):
    lines = ax.plot(np.arange(10)*(i+1))
    lines[0].set_color(cm(i//NUM_STYLES*float(NUM_STYLES)/NUM_COLORS))
    lines[0].set_linestyle(LINE_STYLES[i%NUM_STYLES])

fig.savefig('moreColors.png')
plt.show()

2.2 更多颜色说明

做出上图的代码:

"""
========================
Visualizing named colors
========================

Simple plot example with the named colors and its visual representation.
"""
from __future__ import division

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib import colors as mcolors


colors = dict(mcolors.BASE_COLORS, **mcolors.CSS4_COLORS)

# Sort colors by hue, saturation, value and name.
by_hsv = sorted((tuple(mcolors.rgb_to_hsv(mcolors.to_rgba(color)[:3])), name)
                for name, color in colors.items())
sorted_names = [name for hsv, name in by_hsv]

n = len(sorted_names)
ncols = 4
nrows = n // ncols + 1

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8, 5))

# Get height and width
X, Y = fig.get_dpi() * fig.get_size_inches()
h = Y / (nrows + 1)
w = X / ncols

for i, name in enumerate(sorted_names):
    col = i % ncols
    row = i // ncols
    y = Y - (row * h) - h

    xi_line = w * (col + 0.05)
    xf_line = w * (col + 0.25)
    xi_text = w * (col + 0.3)

    ax.text(xi_text, y, name, fontsize=(h * 0.8),
            horizontalalignment='left',
            verticalalignment='center')

    ax.hlines(y + h * 0.1, xi_line, xf_line,
              color=colors[name], linewidth=(h * 0.6))

ax.set_xlim(0, X)
ax.set_ylim(0, Y)
ax.set_axis_off()

fig.subplots_adjust(left=0, right=1,
                    top=1, bottom=0,
                    hspace=0, wspace=0)
plt.show()

2.3 颜色名与RGB对应关系

cnames = {
'aliceblue':            '#F0F8FF',
'antiquewhite':         '#FAEBD7',
'aqua':                 '#00FFFF',
'aquamarine':           '#7FFFD4',
'azure':                '#F0FFFF',
'beige':                '#F5F5DC',
'bisque':               '#FFE4C4',
'black':                '#000000',
'blanchedalmond':       '#FFEBCD',
'blue':                 '#0000FF',
'blueviolet':           '#8A2BE2',
'brown':                '#A52A2A',
'burlywood':            '#DEB887',
'cadetblue':            '#5F9EA0',
'chartreuse':           '#7FFF00',
'chocolate':            '#D2691E',
'coral':                '#FF7F50',
'cornflowerblue':       '#6495ED',
'cornsilk':             '#FFF8DC',
'crimson':              '#DC143C',
'cyan':                 '#00FFFF',
'darkblue':             '#00008B',
'darkcyan':             '#008B8B',
'darkgoldenrod':        '#B8860B',
'darkgray':             '#A9A9A9',
'darkgreen':            '#006400',
'darkkhaki':            '#BDB76B',
'darkmagenta':          '#8B008B',
'darkolivegreen':       '#556B2F',
'darkorange':           '#FF8C00',
'darkorchid':           '#9932CC',
'darkred':              '#8B0000',
'darksalmon':           '#E9967A',
'darkseagreen':         '#8FBC8F',
'darkslateblue':        '#483D8B',
'darkslategray':        '#2F4F4F',
'darkturquoise':        '#00CED1',
'darkviolet':           '#9400D3',
'deeppink':             '#FF1493',
'deepskyblue':          '#00BFFF',
'dimgray':              '#696969',
'dodgerblue':           '#1E90FF',
'firebrick':            '#B22222',
'floralwhite':          '#FFFAF0',
'forestgreen':          '#228B22',
'fuchsia':              '#FF00FF',
'gainsboro':            '#DCDCDC',
'ghostwhite':           '#F8F8FF',
'gold':                 '#FFD700',
'goldenrod':            '#DAA520',
'gray':                 '#808080',
'green':                '#008000',
'greenyellow':          '#ADFF2F',
'honeydew':             '#F0FFF0',
'hotpink':              '#FF69B4',
'indianred':            '#CD5C5C',
'indigo':               '#4B0082',
'ivory':                '#FFFFF0',
'khaki':                '#F0E68C',
'lavender':             '#E6E6FA',
'lavenderblush':        '#FFF0F5',
'lawngreen':            '#7CFC00',
'lemonchiffon':         '#FFFACD',
'lightblue':            '#ADD8E6',
'lightcoral':           '#F08080',
'lightcyan':            '#E0FFFF',
'lightgoldenrodyellow': '#FAFAD2',
'lightgreen':           '#90EE90',
'lightgray':            '#D3D3D3',
'lightpink':            '#FFB6C1',
'lightsalmon':          '#FFA07A',
'lightseagreen':        '#20B2AA',
'lightskyblue':         '#87CEFA',
'lightslategray':       '#778899',
'lightsteelblue':       '#B0C4DE',
'lightyellow':          '#FFFFE0',
'lime':                 '#00FF00',
'limegreen':            '#32CD32',
'linen':                '#FAF0E6',
'magenta':              '#FF00FF',
'maroon':               '#800000',
'mediumaquamarine':     '#66CDAA',
'mediumblue':           '#0000CD',
'mediumorchid':         '#BA55D3',
'mediumpurple':         '#9370DB',
'mediumseagreen':       '#3CB371',
'mediumslateblue':      '#7B68EE',
'mediumspringgreen':    '#00FA9A',
'mediumturquoise':      '#48D1CC',
'mediumvioletred':      '#C71585',
'midnightblue':         '#191970',
'mintcream':            '#F5FFFA',
'mistyrose':            '#FFE4E1',
'moccasin':             '#FFE4B5',
'navajowhite':          '#FFDEAD',
'navy':                 '#000080',
'oldlace':              '#FDF5E6',
'olive':                '#808000',
'olivedrab':            '#6B8E23',
'orange':               '#FFA500',
'orangered':            '#FF4500',
'orchid':               '#DA70D6',
'palegoldenrod':        '#EEE8AA',
'palegreen':            '#98FB98',
'paleturquoise':        '#AFEEEE',
'palevioletred':        '#DB7093',
'papayawhip':           '#FFEFD5',
'peachpuff':            '#FFDAB9',
'peru':                 '#CD853F',
'pink':                 '#FFC0CB',
'plum':                 '#DDA0DD',
'powderblue':           '#B0E0E6',
'purple':               '#800080',
'red':                  '#FF0000',
'rosybrown':            '#BC8F8F',
'royalblue':            '#4169E1',
'saddlebrown':          '#8B4513',
'salmon':               '#FA8072',
'sandybrown':           '#FAA460',
'seagreen':             '#2E8B57',
'seashell':             '#FFF5EE',
'sienna':               '#A0522D',
'silver':               '#C0C0C0',
'skyblue':              '#87CEEB',
'slateblue':            '#6A5ACD',
'slategray':            '#708090',
'snow':                 '#FFFAFA',
'springgreen':          '#00FF7F',
'steelblue':            '#4682B4',
'tan':                  '#D2B48C',
'teal':                 '#008080',
'thistle':              '#D8BFD8',
'tomato':               '#FF6347',
'turquoise':            '#40E0D0',
'violet':               '#EE82EE',
'wheat':                '#F5DEB3',
'white':                '#FFFFFF',
'whitesmoke':           '#F5F5F5',
'yellow':               '#FFFF00',
'yellowgreen':          '#9ACD32'}

另外的显示方式:

装了seaborn扩展的话,在字典seaborn.xkcd_rgb中包含所有的xkcd crowdsourced color names。如下

plt.plot([1,2], lw=4, c=seaborn.xkcd_rgb['baby poop green'])

所有颜色如下:

参考资料

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